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graphs      CLIMATE-UK.COM'S  REVIEW  OF  THE  BRITISH  METEOROLOGICAL  SCENE
     MONTHLY  SUMMARY
     No. 586 For   OCTOBER  2004
        VERY WET, ESPECIALLY IN EASTERN SCOTLAND AND NORTHEAST  ENGLAND
Text Box: The extended westerly spell which began in the second week of September lasted until the 6th, followed by brief northerly, anticyclonic and easterly episodes. A long cyclonic period occupied the period 13th-29th, followed by a sharp rise in pressure on the 30th/31st. The mean Icelandic low was displaced towards Scotland, and the Azores high was almost non-existent. Sea-level pressure anomalies ranged from -10mbar over Cornwall to +11mbar over southern Greenland.

A very disturbed south-westerly type persisted until the 6th with deep Atlantic depressions becoming slow-moving between Scotland and Iceland; that of 3rd/4th contained some tropical remnants. Heavy rain and strong winds affected all parts of the UK at intervals, 115mm of rain fell in 48 hours at Capel Curig in Snowdonia, and a short-lived tornado was reported from Paulton, Somerset. The incursion of tropical air on the 3rd led to a minimum that night of 15.6ēC at Thorney Island in West Sussex. Southern Britain become much brighter from the 4th onwards, and as pressure rose over the country on the 7th and 8th most areas enjoyed longer sunny periods - 10.8 hours at Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, on the 7th - with fewer showers. Between the 9th and 12th an anticyclone migrated from Scotland to the Baltic, and low pressure over Biscay and France induced a stiff easterly flow over the UK. The weather was cool and sunny for a while with local frost overnight, but southern districts became cloudier from the 10th with local rain, and a prolonged downpour affected the Channel Islands on the 11th/12th with 66mm falling at Jersey airport in the 24 hours to 1800 on the 12th. 

Low pressure stagnated over the country between the 13th and 17th bringing outbreaks of heavy rain (with local thunder) and flooding was reported from London, Wales, Northern Ireland and eastern Scotland. A multiple tornado outbreak was reported from the Horsham district of West Sussex on the 14th. There was a brief respite around the 18th, although it became cold in Scotland and Northern Ireland, and a maximum of just 4.3ēC was recorded at Dalwhinnie, Inverness-shire, on the 20th.  Between the 20th and 25th a succession of active depressions tracked north-east across the UK bringing
Text Box: further heavy rain and gales. At Llansadwrn, Anglesey, 91mm fell in the 24 hours ending 0600 on the 23rd, and serious flooding affected Anglesey and Caernarfon. Capel Curig collected 250mm of rain between the 14th and 25th. A maximum of 19.0ēC at Gravesend, Kent, on the 24th was the month’s highest, but early on the 26th clearing skies in Scotland led to a sharp frost in the far north with -3.9ēC at Altnaharra and Kinbrace, both in Sutherland.

The next depression deepened to 953 mbar in the Southwest Approaches early on the 27th, subsequently filling slowly in situ over the next three days. The worst of the rain and wind was confined to southwest England and south Wales, but the combination of heavy seas, swell, a wind-driven tidal surge, and spring tides led to serious coastal flooding in south Cornwall and south Devon, widely reckoned to be the worst in the area since at least 1962.  On the 28th a woman died in Corfe Castle, Dorset, during the a severe, possibly tornadic, squall. Rising pressure during the 30th and 31st led to a mostly quiet end to the month, and the 30th in particular was warm and sunny in Southeast England.

It was a rather cold October in Scotland and Northern Ireland with mean temperature locally 1.0-1.5 degC below normal, whereas much of Southeast England was 0.5-1.0 degC warmer than average. The absence of warm days was a notable feature: the highest reading to hand of 19.0ēC has been exceeded in every October since 1974. Rainfall was well above normal in all regions, but for England and Wales there were wetter Octobers in 1987, 1998 and 2000, while those of 2001 and 2002 were almost as wet. Leuchars, Fife, reported its wettest October since the station opened in 1921  - in fact it was the wettest in the Leuchars/St.Andrews/Cupar area since rainfall recording began there in 1866 - and it was the wettest in a composite record for the Vale of York since 1903.  Sunshine ranged from 30 per cent above normal at Falmouth to 60 per cent below at Aviemore; it was the dullest October in the Glenmore Forest/mid-Strathspey district since 1974.
                                                                                                                                           
                       TEMPERATURE                                SUNSHINE                             RAINFALL                                                       
                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                   
                                          Highest and lowest totals                     Highest and lowest totals        
                                              on record for month    
Maximum fall in 24 hrs
   (beginning 09 h)
                    on record for month    
Days with snow or sleet
 
Days with fog
(Vis <220 yards at 09 h)
 
                                                                                         
     
Difference from average
   
Difference from average
 
Highest maximum
   
Lowest minimum
   
No. of days with grass
  minimum below 0ēC
   
Days of no sunshine
 
Maximum duration
       
First year of record
         
Days of no rainfall
 (0.1 mm or less)
         
First year of record
         
Days with thunder
     
       PLACE  
Mean Maximum
   
Mean minimum
             
No. of air frosts
       
Total for month
                   
Total for month
                   
                               
% of average
                   
% of average
                 
                                                                     
                                   
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
             
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
       
             
Date
   
Date
         
Date
         
Year
         
Date
         
Year
           
                                                                     
      ēC       ēC       ēC       ēC             Hrs       Hrs         Hrs       Hrs       mm       mm         mm     mm          
                                                                                                                                           
  *Hampstead   14.3   +0.5   08.3   +1.1   17.6   24   04.7   26   00   00   01   06.0   30   075   075   1910   169   1997   050   1976   09   32   13   136   159   1910   177   1987   05   1947   00   00   00  
  Thorney Island   15.2   +0.0   09.2   +1.4   17.3   02   03.3   26   00   00   03   08.6   07   107   084   1958   176   1994   076   1963   07   25   24   122   164   1941   213   1987   02   1969   01   00   00  
  *Coltishall   14.7   +0.2   07.9   +0.6   17.7   01   00.9   19   02   00   03   07.9   06   097   088   1979   153   1995   075   1982   09   13   14   073   128   1964   144   1993   09   1995   00   00   00  
  Wittering   13.7   -0.1   07.7   +0.9   16.3   24   02.8   26   01   00   07   09.1   21   111   107   1950   165   1959   051   1976   11   14   13   080   173   1948   126   1960   04   1978   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  Lyneham   13.5   -0.5   07.8   +1.2   16.5   24   04.7   19   00   00   07   09.9   07   113   109   1952   161   1999   053   1968   09   25   03   136   234   1945   176   1949   05   1978   00   00   00  
  Ross-on-Wye   14.0   -0.3   08.0   +1.1   17.0   01   03.0   19   00   00   05   07.5   18   105   113   1915   156   1919   037   1915   06   18   02   140   246   1859   216   1907   09   1969   00   00   00  
  *St Athan   13.8   -0.2   09.1   +0.9   16.5   24   05.1   08   00   00   06   08.4   18   092   095   1954   153   1997   045   1968   09   30   03   147   173   1954   249   1998   11   1978   00   00   00  
  St Mawgan   13.9   -0.4   09.2   -0.2   16.2   30   05.6   08   00   00   05   09.1   07   135   122   1945   169   1994   051   1968   07   23   03   153   167   1944   217   1987   19   1965   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Edgbaston   12.9   -0.2   07.8   +0.8   15.3   05   04.3   19   00   00   02   06.1   05   073   078   1887   152   1997   027   1893   09   18   23   114   183   1887   191   1998   07   1969   00   00   00  
  Valley   13.7   -0.5   08.9   -0.3   15.7   02   05.1   14   00   00   05   10.0   08   112   108   1946   151   1965   053   1968   08   38   22   141   160   1941   208   2000   09   1947   01   00   00  
  Ringway   13.5   -0.2   07.7   +0.2   16.2   24   03.5   14   00   00   07   08.1   04   085   088   1945   136   1959   062   1960   08   18   03   102   148   1942   191   2000   14   1946   00   00   00  
  *Watnall   13.1   -0.7   07.3   +0.5   15.7   05   02.5   19   02   00   04   06.9   04   076   074   1948   133   1995   045   1960   08   17   03   105   229   1942   143   1960   08   1947   01   00   00  
                                                                     
  Leeming   13.0   -0.6   06.7   +0.1   16.7   24   03.0   26   00   00   08   08.2   07   080   087   1945   144   1981   047   1982   05   21   22   * 134   269   1945   128   1960   07   1962   00   00   00  
  *Boulmer   12.8   0.0   07.7   +0.7   16.1   24   02.2   27   01   00   05   08.1   05   081   081   1945   156   1986   053   1960   06   17   20   104   173   1945   159   2002   07   1985   02   00   00  
  Eskdalemuir   10.8   -0.9   05.6   +0.9   14.3   07   01.2   09   03   00   08   08.3   07   066   085   1911   130   1959   040   1976   06   30   03   227   162   1911   331   1967   12   1951   00   00   00  
  *Bishopton   11.9   -1.2   06.3   -0.1   14.6   07   00.2   20   03   00   07   09.8   08   062   078   1921   138   1993   030   1940   08   32   03   183   189   1921   266   1995   20   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  Leuchars   12.4   -0.6   06.8   +0.7   15.5   03   00.2   27   02   00   04   08.1   08   095   094   1922   152   1986   048   1960   07   24   14   * 183   332   1922   170   2002   05   1951   00   00   00  
  Dyce   12.0   -0.5   07.0   +1.0   14.9   22   -00.3   26   02   01   08   07.3   05   072   078   1941   156   1986   030   1960   08   18   15   144   189   1941   230   2002   08   1985   00   00   00  
  *Stornoway   11.3   -0.7   07.0   +0.2   13.8   11   01.7   26   03   00   07   04.9   20   047   061   1880   135   1898   034   1921   05   19   03   143   114   1943   231   1989   19   1946   00   00   00  
  *Aldergrove   11.8   -1.1   06.0   -1.2   14.9   24   00.2   09   04   00   04   07.0   23   076   093   1927   117   1939   049   1954   09   23   27   106   128   1927   176   1976   19   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                           
  Stations marked with an asterisk record sunshine electronically; comparisons      
  with earlier records are therefore somewhat speculative. Thorney Island's and     * New high monthly record for October  
  Edgbaston's sunshine figures are made at a nearby site.  site.