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graphs CLIMATE-UK.COM'S REVIEW OF THE BRITISH METEOROLOGICAL SCENE
MONTHLY SUMMARY
No. 598 For OCTOBER 2005
EXCEPTIONALLY WARM BUT CLOUDY; VERY WET SECOND HALF
Text Box: This exceptional month was dominated by winds from a southerly quarter almost throughout. Mean monthly sea-level pressure was low to the west of Scotland and high over eastern Europe; the main anomaly centres were -10mbar just north of the Azores and +10mbar near St Petersburg, resulting in an anomalous SSE-ly flow over the British Isles.

An unstable northwesterly airflow covering the British Isles on the 1st soon relaxed as a strong build of pressure led to the establishment of an anticyclone which persisted over or to the east of the UK until the 7th, but it was less settled over northwestern Britain. After a showery first day of the month, the weather became mostly dry with variable - often large - amounts of cloud, and occasional sunshine. The morning of the 3rd was cold in the south with -0.5C at Redhill airfield (Surrey) but afternoons were warm between the 6th and 8th with highs typically 18-21C. 

With pressure now high over eastern Europe a mainly southerly type persisted until the 18th, although a vigorous frontal trough moved very slowly eastwards across the UK between the 11th and 13th, followed by a sharp but short-lived rise in pressure. Most areas had some rain on the 8th, and heavy prolonged rain affected Scotland and Northern Ireland over the next few days with 130mm at Broadford (Skye) between the 8th and 10th, but eastern, central and southern districts again became fine and warm with highs of 20-23C. Herne Bay (Kent) reached 23.6C on the 10th, while St Jamess Park (London) logged a minimum of 17.8C overnight 11th/12th. 

Torrential rain in many western districts led to serious but short-lived flooding, notably in Wales and Cumbria, and 48hr totals for the 11th-12th included 140mm at Milford Haven (Pembrokeshire) and 115mm at both Eskdalemuir (Dumfriesshire) and Carlisle (Cumbria). The rain belt weakened as it moved across eastern areas on the 13th. A cooler interlude then brought a couple of frosty nights to Scotland, but it became very warm again on the 15th-16th with 21.5C at Wisley (Surrey) on the 15th.
Text Box: A trough advanced across the country from the southwest on the 19th, introducing a cyclonic spell which lasted until the 25th. Rain fell frequently and often heavily, and hail and thunder occurred in many places. Some 68mm of rain reportedly fell at Ottery St Mary (Devon) on the 19th. It became somewhat colder for a few days in Scotland with some hill snow, and on the 23rd Kinbrace (Sutherland) recorded an early-morning minimum of -4.9C while Dalwhinnie (Inverness-shire) had an afternoon high of 4.9C. Further flooding was reported on the 24th, notably in Northern Ireland where 69mm fell in 12hr at Killowen (Down); at Capel Curig (Snowdonia) 101mm fell between the 23rd and 25th.

A broad SSW-ly flow brought tropical air from unusually low latitudes during the last seven days of the month. The weather was warm but largely cloudy with rain at times, heavy in the north and west, but the 27th was notably sunny and on this day the temperature climbed to 22.5C at Kinlochewe (Wester Ross) and to 23.6C at Aber (Caernarfon) - a new UK record for so late in the season. The COL 'A' station at Llansadwrn (Anglesey) reported 24.1C on the same date. Herne Bay logged 20.7C on the 30th following a minimum the previous night of 17.3C. The 31st was wet in the Southeast and East Anglia.

This was among the four warmest Octobers on record, the others being 1969, 1995 and 2001, although unusually the positive anomaly was much greater by night than by day. At several sites in the southeastern quarter of England it was the warmest October of them all. The CET for September and October together was also higher than in any other year. It was a very wet month in many parts of the country and Carlisle registered over three times its normal amount of rain, although scattered locations in the east and far north had near-normal rainfall. Over the country as a whole it was the dullest October since 1982, and the sunshine aggregates at Eskdalemuir, Boulmer and Leeming were the lowest since records began in 1911, 1945 and 1945 respectively.
                                                                                                                                             
    TEMPERATURE   SUNSHINE   RAINFALL        
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                  Highest and lowest totals             Highest and lowest totals        
                                  on record for month    
Maximum fall in 24 hrs
   (beginning 09 h)
        on record for month    
Days with snow or sleet
 
Days with fog
(Vis <220 yards at 09 h)
 
                                                                                         
     
Difference from average
   
Difference from average
 
Highest maximum
   
Lowest minimum
   
No. of days with grass
  minimum below 0C
   
Days of no sunshine
 
Maximum duration
       
First year of record
         
Days of no rainfall
 (0.1 mm or less)
         
First year of record
         
Days with thunder
     
  PLACE  
Mean Maximum
   
Mean minimum
             
No. of air frosts
       
Total for month
                   
Total for month
                   
                               
% of average
                   
% of average
                 
                                                                     
                                   
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
             
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
       
             
Date
   
Date
         
Date
         
Year
         
Date
         
Year
           
                                                                     
    C     C     C     C           Hrs     Hrs       Hrs     Hrs       mm     mm       mm     mm          
                                                                                                                                             
  *Hampstead   17.0   +2.7   10.8   +1.9   22.5   10   06.4   23   00   00   03   08.1   09   086   080   1910   169   1997   050   1976   14   24   20   103   154   1910   177   1987   05   1947   01   00   00  
  Thorney Island   16.9   +1.1   11.7   +1.7   19.5   10   05.0   03   00   00   05   09.8   02   125   089   1958   176   1994   076   1963   15   30   12   095   110   1941   213   1987   02   1969   01   00   00  
  *Coltishall   16.7   +2.5   10.5   +1.4   22.3   11   03.1   03   00   00   05   09.6   10   102   086   1979   153   1995   075   1982   13   10   31   065   098   1964   144   1993   09   1995   00   00   00  
  *Wittering   16.0   +2.1   10.2   +1.7   21.7   10   05.5   09   00   00   06   10.5   02   098   088   1950   165   1959   051   1976   14   17   23   054   101   1948   126   1960   04   1978   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  Lyneham   15.8   +2.5   10.5   +1.5   21.3   11   05.5   05   00   00   09   09.7   04   101   090   1952   161   1999   053   1968   12   19   18   091   135   1945   176   1949   05   1978   01   00   00  
  Ross-on-Wye   16.4   +2.7   10.6   +1.5   22.0   10   04.0   05   00   00   07   08.4   10   082   082   1915   156   1919   037   1915   16   23   19   130   195   1859   216   1907   09   1969   00   00   00  
  *St Athan   16.0   +1.9   11.8   +1.9   20.1   10   06.9   09   00   00   07   08.7   13   076   072   1954   153   1997   045   1968   10   21   24   116   117   1954   249   1998   11   1978   02   00   00  
  St Mawgan   15.6   +1.2   11.9   +1.5   19.5   15   07.4   14   00   00   09   10.3   05   109   091   1945   169   1994   051   1968   08   17   11   115   107   1944   217   1987   19   1965   01   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Edgbaston   15.3   +2.8   10.6   +2.0   20.6   10   06.2   09   00   00   07   08.0   10   060   060   1887   152   1997   027   1893   11   43   12   123   131   1887   191   1998   07   1969   01   00   00  
  *Valley   15.4   +1.1   11.2   +1.7   20.8   15   04.5   14   00   00   06   09.5   15   082   072   1946   151   1965   053   1968   11   38   11   190   185   1941   208   2000   09   1947   00   00   00  
  *Woodford   15.6   +1.8   10.0   +1.2   20.7   11   02.1   02   01   00   06   08.2   27   066   063   1945   136   1959   062   1960   12   20   23   106   132   1942   191   2000   14   1946   00   00   01  
  *Watnall   15.5   +1.5   10.5   +1.6   21.1   11   05.7   09   00   00   08   08.2   02   054   049   1948   133   1995   045   1960   11   29   23   088   164   1942   143   1960   08   1947   01   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Leeming   15.3   +1.6   09.5   +0.8   20.0   11   03.7   14   00   00   15   07.0   05   * 047   047   1945   144   1981   047   1982   12   16   23   069   118   1945   134   2004   07   1962   01   00   01  
  *Boulmer   14.0   +1.3   09.5   +0.7   17.6   28   03.3   09   00   00   13   07.5   01   * 046   043   1945   156   1986   053   1960   12   27   24   121   173   1945   159   2002   07   1985   00   00   00  
  Eskdalemuir   12.4   +0.9   07.6   +1.6   18.6   27   -00.1   14   04   01   15   06.5   27   * 037   044   1911   130   1959   040   1976   08   83   11   292   179   1911   331   1967   12   1951   00   00   00  
  *Bishopton   13.5   +0.4   08.9   +1.5   19.5   27   02.1   14   01   00   12   09.2   13   045   053   1921   138   1993   030   1940   06   35   11   177   156   1921   266   1995   20   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Leuchars   13.7   +1.7   08.7   +0.9   18.1   27   00.7   14   01   00   11   08.8   01   061   057   1922   152   1986   048   1960   14   40   11   131   204   1922   183   2004   05   1951   00   00   00  
  Dyce   13.1   +1.6   08.3   +1.7   16.9   27   00.2   14   02   00   09   09.1   01   072   072   1941   156   1986   030   1960   15   42   11   116   131   1941   230   2002   08   1985   00   00   00  
  *Stornoway   13.1   +0.7   08.6   +1.1   17.5   16   03.2   14   00   00   06   07.2   16   061   075   1880   135   1898   034   1921   06   24   09   119   081   1943   231   1989   19   1946   00   00   00  
  *Aldergrove   14.1   +0.9   09.5   +1.3   18.1   27   03.3   14   00   00   07   09.8   13   059   068   1927   117   1939   049   1954   09   18   18   098   101   1927   176   1976   19   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                             
  Stations marked with an asterisk record sunshine electronically; comparisons      
  with earlier records are therefore somewhat speculative. Thorney Island's and   * New low record    
  Edgbaston's sunshine figures are made at a nearby site. site.