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graphs CLIMATE-UK.COM'S REVIEW OF THE BRITISH METEOROLOGICAL SCENE
MONTHLY SUMMARY
No. 670 For OCTOBER 2011
EXCEPTIONALLY WARM START; WET AND DULL IN THE WEST AND NORTH; DRY AND SUNNY IN THE SOUTH AND EAST
Text Box: subsequently veered northwesterly introducing a colder episode with blustery showers and sunny intervals, but heavier rain fell in Scotland and northern England with 46mm at Eskdalemuir (Dumfriesshire) on the 17th, while the month's highest gust speed of 64kn was registered at Aberdaron (Caernarfon) on the same day. As the wind eased and skies cleared, widespread frost was registered early on the 20th and 21st, with -3.3C at Lynford (Norfolk) and -2.2C at Frittenden (Kent) on the respective dates.

Rather warm southerly winds prevailed for most of the rest of the month. The 22nd and 23rd were warm with sunny periods over eastern and central England and 20.3C was reached at Pershore (Worcs) on the 23rd. But heavy rain and strong winds affected northern and western districts, with 58mm of rain at Cluanie Inn (Wester Ross) on the 22nd, and 71mm in the 48h to 09Z on the 24th at Cardinham (Cornwall). There was short-lived flooding in parts of Cornwall, Devon, Wales and Northern Ireland on the 23rd/24th, and again locally in southern England on the 26th when 58mm fell in 36h at Thorney Island (West Sussex). The 28th was sunny, but the end of the month was mostly cloudy and warm, and there was rain at times in western districts; a notably high minimum of 15.6C occurred at Ballykelly (Londonderry) early on the 31st, with a maximum of 19.3C that afternoon at Kinloss (Moray).

Monthly mean temperature ranged from 0.5degC above the 1981-2010 average in northern Scotland to 2.5-3.0 degC above in the Midlands. There have been only six warmer Octobers (as measured by the CET) since the start of the record in 1659, all occurring in the last 100 years and four of them in the last 16, most recently in 2006. Rainfall percentages ranged from below 25 locally in the East Midlands, East Anglia and northern Home Counties to above 200 in Northern Ireland and western Scotland where Cluanie Inn recorded 474mm. Sunshine percentages ranged from below 40 in southwest Scotland to around 150 in East Anglia and Kent. Eskdalemuir (Dumfriesshire) logged 30h bright sunshine, its lowest in over 100 years of records, while Manston (Kent) had 163h.
Text Box: Southerly and southwesterly winds dominated to such an extent that it was the eleventh most "southwesterly" October in 139 years of records. Sea-level pressure anomalies ranged from -2.5mbar in Shetland to +2.5mbar in the Channel Islands. There were brief rather cold episodes around the 6th-8th, 18th-20th and 26th-27th, otherwise it was a warm month. 

The exceptional warmth of late-September lasted for the first three days of October in eastern, midland and southern counties of England, but Scotland and Northern Ireland were already cooler and cloudier with heavy rain in places; 55mm fell at Prestwick (Ayrshire) during the 48h to 09Z on the 2nd. Meanwhile, a new October temperature record was established at Swanscombe (Kent) where the temperature reached 29.9C on the 1st; it was almost as warm on the 2nd with 29.3C at Coningsby (Lincs), Santon Downham (Norfolk) and Cambridge, and on the 3rd with 28.3C at Coningsby. An exceptionally high overnight minimum of 18.6C was logged at Emley Moor (W.Yorks) early on the 1st, followed by 17.8C at the same site early on the 2nd. The sun shone for 11.0h at East Malling (Kent) on the 2nd. The next two days were cloudier, windier and somewhat cooler, though still with highs of 20C locally in eastern England, and there was a good deal of rain especially in western and northern areas with 67mm at Capel Curig (Caernarfon) during the 48h ending at 21Z on the 6th. The wind veered west to northwesterly on the 6th-8th which were rather cold DAYS with sunshine and blustery showers and a high on the 6th of just 7.1C at Dalwhinnie (Inverness-shire).

The wind backed west to southwesterly again between the 9th and 11th. Southern districts were cloudy, breezy and warm with highs again exceeding 20C locally, but there was persistent and sometimes heavy rain over north Wales, the north Midlands, northern England, southern Scotland and Northern Ireland while northern Scotland was mainly fair. High pressure developed over the UK on the 12th and 13th, and although it subsequently transferred eastwards, a ridge was maintained across England until the 15th. Slight air frost occurred locally in northern Scotland overnight 11th/12th and 12th/13th but the cloudy and rather warm weather continued in southern England until the 13th. The next two days were much sunnier though with local air frost and patchy fog at night. Winds
                                                                                                                                             
    TEMPERATURE   SUNSHINE   RAINFALL        
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                  Highest and lowest totals             Highest and lowest totals        
                                  on record for month    
Maximum fall in 24 hrs
   (beginning 09 h)
        on record for month    
Days with snow or sleet
 
Days with fog
(Vis <220 yards at 09 h)
 
                                                                                         
     
Difference from average
   
Difference from average
 
Highest maximum
   
Lowest minimum
   
No. of days with grass
  minimum below 0C
   
Days of no sunshine
 
Maximum duration
       
First year of record
         
Days of no rainfall
 (0.1 mm or less)
         
First year of record
         
Days with thunder
     
  PLACE  
Mean Maximum
   
Mean minimum
             
No. of air frosts
       
Total for month
                   
Total for month
                   
                               
% of average
                   
% of average
                 
                                                                     
                                   
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
             
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
       
             
Date
   
Date
         
Date
         
Year
         
Date
         
Year
           
                                                                     
    C     C     C     C           Hrs     Hrs       Hrs     Hrs       mm     mm       mm     mm          
                                                                                                                                             
  *Hampstead   16.8   +2.6   10.0   +1.9   28.3   01   01.5   20   05   00   01   09.6   01   138   128   1910   169   1997   050   1976   20   05.7   05   021   033   1910   177   1987   05   1947   00   00   00  
  *Thorney Island   16.9   +1.8   10.6   +2.9   25.2   01   02.3   20   03   00   00   09.7   02   148   108   1958   176   1994   076   1963   14   43.2   26   076   088   1941   213   1987   02   1969   01   00   00  
  *Wattisham   16.8   +2.7   09.6   +2.9   28.2   02   -00.9   20   03   01   02   10.8   02   ** 157   137   1968   155   1997   055   1976   15   10.8   08   034   064   1960   139   1960   03   1972   00   00   00  
  *Wittering   17.0   +3.3   08.9   +2.2   28.1   01   00.0   20   03   00   02   09.9   15   138   124   1950   165   1959   051   1976   20   10.6   26   029   053   1948   126   1960   04   1978   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Lyneham   16.2   +2.3   09.5   +3.0   26.5   01   02.1   20   03   00   05   10.5   01   126   113   1952   161   1999   053   1968   15   10.4   26   041   060   1945   176   1949   05   1978   00   00   00  
  Ross-on-Wye   17.3   +3.1   09.6   +2.8   28.0   01   01.0   29   04   00   01   08.1   01   118   118   1915   156   1919   037   1915   16   09.6   31   050   075   1859   216   1907   09   1969   00   00   00  
  *St Athan   15.9   +2.0   11.0   +2.9   26.3   02   03.3   20   02   00   09   08.8   28   098   094   1954   153   1997   045   1968   06   19.6   31   098   102   1954   249   1998   11   1978   00   00   00  
  Culdrose   15.4   +1.1   11.3   +2.4   23.2   01   05.0   28   02   00   09   10.0   02   086   073   1961   149   2010   059   1968   07   24.4   24   077   071   1961   227   1987   15   1969   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Edgbaston   16.0   +2.8   10.0   +2.7   27.2   01   03.7   20   00   00   01   08.9   01   129   120   1887   152   1997   027   1893   16   09.0   05   044   051   1887   191   1998   07   1969   00   00   00  
  *Valley   15.1   +1.0   11.5   +2.4   19.6   01   04.8   28   02   00   07   07.0   15   060   054   1946   151   1965   053   1968   09   09.8   26   066   064   1941   208   2000   09   1947   00   00   00  
  *Woodford   15.4   +2.1   09.0   +2.4   26.3   01   -01.8   20   06   01   07   09.3   01   090   087   1945   136   1959   062   1960   07   15.6   08   094   117   1942   191   2000   14   1946   00   00   00  
  *Watnall   16.3   +2.6   09.2   +2.5   28.4   01   02.1   20   03   00   04   09.8   15   116   105   1948   133   1995   045   1960   16   08.2   08   037   069   1942   143   1960   08   1947   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Leeming   15.1   +1.6   08.3   +1.8   26.1   01   01.4   20   04   00   07   08.3   15   086   087   1945   144   1981   047   2005   14   18.4   11   064   110   1945   134   2004   07   1962   00   00   00  
  *Boulmer   13.9   +1.2   08.4   +1.5   19.7   03   01.9   20   00   00   08   09.3   15   084   078   1945   156   1986   046   2005   12   18.2   08   058   082   1945   159   2002   07   1985   00   00   00  
  *Eskdalemuir   12.1   +0.5   07.7   +3.1   19.1   01   -03.0   20   03   01   15   05.4   07   * 030   036   1911   130   1959   037   2005   02   46.0   17   250   153   1911   334   2008   12   1951   00   00   01  
  *Bishopton   12.9   -0.1   08.9   +2.6   16.7   03   02.2   20   01   00   13   09.2   07   045   052   1921   138   1993   030   1940   02   23.8   17   192   170   1921   266   1995   20   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Leuchars   13.7   +0.8   08.4   +2.4   19.3   03   00.9   20   05   00   07   07.7   16   076   070   1922   152   1986   048   1960   13   20.4   17   065   101   1922   183   2004   05   1951   00   00   00  
  *Dyce   13.2   +0.8   08.4   +2.5   18.4   05   02.9   12   00   00   07   07.6   16   079   080   1941   156   1986   030   1960   08   16.8   25   068   077   1941   230   2002   08   1985   00   00   00  
  *Stornoway   12.3   +0.4   07.8   +1.1   15.7   24   01.9   19   02   00   08   09.1   12   058   072   1880   135   1898   034   1921   04   17.2   23   149   101   1943   231   1989   19   1946   00   00   00  
  *Aldergrove   13.7   +0.9   09.5   +2.4   18.1   08   02.7   20   02   00   10   05.3   07   * 045   051   1927   117   1939   049   1954   06   25.8   17   139   144   1927   176   1976   19   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                             
  Stations marked with an asterisk record sunshine electronically; comparisons      
  with earlier records are therefore somewhat speculative. Thorney Island's   ** New highest    
  sunshine figures are made at a nearby site.   * New lowest