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graphs CLIMATE-UK.COM'S REVIEW OF THE BRITISH METEOROLOGICAL SCENE
MONTHLY SUMMARY
No. 682 For OCTOBER 2012
RATHER COLD, DULL AND WET OVER ENGLAND AND WALES; COLD BUT DRY AND BRIGHT IN SCOTLAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND
Text Box: in 48h at Ballypatrick Forest (Co Antrim). Pressure became almost uniform of the British Isles between the 19th and 21st and morning fog was slow to clear.

A moist easterly flow developed between the 22nd and 25th, bringing extensive low cloud and hill fog to much of England and Wales throughout this period; between the 19th and 26th inclusive there was just 0.1h of sunshine at Reading University (Berks), but central and northern Scotland enjoyed abundant sunshine - up to the 23rd at least - and the 21st was a rather warm day over much of Scotland with highs of 15-16C. A maximum of 19.2C was logged at Langdon Bay (Kent) on the 22nd and at St Helier (Jersey) on the 23rd, but the warmth was confined to the south Kent and Sussex coast and the Channel Islands. A brief northerly outbreak affected all parts on the 26th and 27th with heavy snow showers in eastern Scotland and eastern England (12cm snow settled at Copley, Co Durham); highs on the 26th included 2.3C at Loch Glascarnoch (Wester Ross) while the following night -6.2C was logged at Tulloch Bridge (Lochaber). The weather became very unsettled again during the closing days of the month with heavy rain falling widely on the 31st.

Averaged over England and Wales it was the coldest October since 2003, the wettest since 2005, and the dullest since 2009. Mean maxima were typically between 1 and 3 degC below the 1981-2010 normal, with the biggest anomalies in eastern Scotland, while mean minima ranged from near normal in southern England to 2.5 degC below locally in eastern Scotland. Rainfall was slightly below normal in parts of northern and western Scotland and Northern Ireland, but above normal elsewhere; highest monthly total to hand is 232mm at Okehampton (Devon). It was a dull month over England and Wales, and in the Channel Islands there was barely 60 per cent of the normal monthly total, but Northern Ireland and Scotland were quite sunny; the largest total was 122h at Tiree (Argyll).
Text Box: The first 20 days of October were mostly rather cold and unsettled with frequent rain, although a weak ridge did affect northern Britain between the 6th and 10th. Thereafter high pressure migrated from Scandinavia to Iceland between the 21st and 25th with an easterly flow over the UK. A brief Arctic outbreak on the 26th/27th was followed by a westerly type. Mean monthly sea-level pressure was quite flat over the country, but the anomalous flow was northeasterly - indeed, it was the 20th most northeasterly month in 140 years of records.

A brisk southwesterly flow held sway during the first five days which were mostly unsettled with sharp showers and sunny intervals, though heavy and prolonged rain fell across southern parts of England and Wales between the evening of the 4th and the early morning of the 6th. On the 4th itself Eastbourne (Sussex) recorded 11.1h of bright sunshine, the month's highest daily duration, but Okehampton (Devon) collected 65mm and Camborne (Cornwall) 63mm during the two rainfall days. Pressure rose over northern Britain between the 6th and 10th, bringing mostly dry weather with plentiful sunshine but also night frosts to central and northern districts, whereas southern England and south Wales had further rain at times.

Between the 11th and 19th pressure was consistently low over the UK as three depressions headed northeastwards across the country. This was therefore the most disturbed part of the month with frequent rain in all regions, and generally below-average temperatures. The 11th was wet nationwide, and the rain continued for much of the 12th in northern and eastern Scotland; totals for the two days exceeded 50mm quite widely, with 67mm at Lentran House, near Inverness. There were sunny spells too during this period but it became very cold in Scotland on the 16th and 17th; the high at Aviemore (Inverness-shire) was just 3.2C on the 16th, and at Dalwhinnie (Inverness-shire) and Aboyne(Aberdeenshire) 3.8C on the 17th, while during the intervening night the mercury slumped to -7.8C at Braemar (Aberdeenshire). Heavy rain returned to much of the UK on the 17th-18th with 75mm
                                                                                                                                             
    TEMPERATURE   SUNSHINE   RAINFALL        
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                  Highest and lowest totals             Highest and lowest totals        
                                  on record for month    
Maximum fall in 24 hrs
   (beginning 09 h)
        on record for month    
Days with snow or sleet
 
Days with fog
(Vis <220 yards at 09 h)
 
                                                                                         
     
Difference from average
   
Difference from average
 
Highest maximum
   
Lowest minimum
   
No. of days with grass
  minimum below 0C
   
Days of no sunshine
 
Maximum duration
       
First year of record
         
Days of no rainfall
 (0.1 mm or less)
         
First year of record
         
Days with thunder
     
  PLACE  
Mean Maximum
   
Mean minimum
             
No. of air frosts
       
Total for month
                   
Total for month
                   
                               
% of average
                   
% of average
                 
                                                                     
                                   
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
             
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
       
             
Date
   
Date
         
Date
         
Year
         
Date
         
Year
           
                                                                     
    C     C     C     C           Hrs     Hrs       Hrs     Hrs       mm     mm       mm     mm          
                                                                                                                                             
  *Hampstead   13.0   -1.5   07.5   -0.9   16.7   02   00.0   28   05   00   07   06.9   06   076   071   1910   169   1997   050   1976   04   18.7   05   108   148   1910   177   1987   05   1947   00   00   01  
  *Thorney Island   14.2   -1.2   09.1   +1.1   17.1   11   00.2   28   03   00   05   09.4   14   104   085   1958   176   1994   076   1963   03   22.0   31   129   136   1941   213   1987   02   1969   00   00   00  
  *Wattisham   13.0   -1.4   07.1   +0.1   17.1   02   -00.9   28   08   01   07   09.0   06   085   076   1968   157   2011   055   1976   03   14.2   05   099   169   1960   139   1960   03   1972   00   01   01  
  *Wittering   13.0   -1.0   06.3   -0.7   17.6   02   00.2   28   03   00   06   09.5   06   105   095   1950   165   1959   051   1976   14   15.2   31   083   141   1948   126   1960   04   1978   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Lyneham   12.5   -1.7   06.9   +0.1   16.6   01   -00.9   27   05   02   14   10.1   14   079   071   1952   161   1999   053   1968   04   31.4   11   140   189   1945   176   1949   05   1978   00   00   02  
  Ross-on-Wye   13.8   -0.7   06.5   -0.6   16.9   01   -00.9   14   07   01   05   07.9   03   103   103   1915   156   1919   037   1915   06   11.6   05   077   106   1859   216   1907   09   1969   00   00   00  
  *St Athan   13.4   -0.8   08.4   +0.0   16.4   01   01.3   14   04   00   11   10.4   06   097   093   1954   153   1997   045   1968   06   17.4   04   146   135   1954   249   1998   11   1978   00   00   00  
  Culdrose   14.0   -0.6   09.4   0.0   16.5   10   03.9   27   01   00   08   10.5   06   115   099   1961   149   2010   059   1968   07   20.8   05   100   084   1961   227   1987   15   1969   00   00   00  
                                                                     
  *Edgbaston   12.1   -1.4   07.1   -0.5   15.5   18   -00.5   27   02   01   03   08.3   14   110   106   1887   152   1997   027   1893   09   08.2   11   051   054   1887   191   1998   07   1969   00   00   02  
  *Valley   13.2   -1.2   08.3   -1.1   16.0   21   03.9   27   01   00   05   09.7   21   090   081   1946   151   1965   053   1968   07   18.0   11   114   101   1941   208   2000   09   1947   00   00   00  
  *Woodford   12.4   -1.2   05.5   -1.4   16.5   08   -00.5   14   13   01   02   07.4   06   102   100   1945   136   1959   062   1960   04   10.4   11   057   065   1942   191   2000   14   1946   00   00   00  
  *Watnall   12.4   -1.6   06.2   -0.8   16.4   18   00.9   27   05   00   07   08.5   14   089   080   1948   133   1995   045   1960   12   18.4   11   073   125   1942   143   1960   08   1947   00   00   01  
                                                                     
  *Leeming   12.3   -1.5   04.5   -2.3   15.9   01   -01.1   10   16   02   06   09.8   09   096   098   1945   144   1981   047   2005   09   25.4   11   083   131   1945   134   2004   07   1962   00   01   00  
  *Boulmer   11.7   -1.3   05.4   -1.8   15.0   01   01.0   10   06   00   04   10.2   07   117   109   1945   156   1986   046   2005   08   41.0   11   102   133   1945   159   2002   07   1985   00   02   00  
  *Eskdalemuir   10.2   -1.7   02.7   -2.2   15.0   08   -03.1   10   18   10   08   09.1   07   083   100   1911   130   1959   030   2011   07   52.0   11   191   107   1911   334   2008   12   1951   00   02   03  
  *Bishopton   11.1   -2.2   04.5   -2.1   15.0   21   -01.4   27   11   02   07   09.5   09   095   111   1921   138   1993   030   1940   09   23.4   17   140   113   1921   266   1995   20   1951   00   01   00  
                                                                     
  *Leuchars   11.1   -2.1   03.8   -2.5   15.1   01   -01.9   17   16   05   07   09.5   07   108   100   1922   152   1986   048   1960   09   51.2   11   108   154   1922   183   2004   05   1951   00   02   00  
  *Dyce   10.5   -2.2   04.2   -2.0   14.8   21   -02.4   17   15   04   07   09.0   21   088   089   1941   156   1986   030   1960   08   30.4   12   105   108   1941   230   2002   08   1985   00   02   00  
  *Stornoway   10.7   -1.5   04.7   -2.3   13.6   01   -00.4   27   11   01   06   07.7   23   099   121   1880   135   1898   034   1921   07   23.8   11   099   062   1943   231   1989   19   1946   00   01   00  
  *Aldergrove   11.9   -1.2   05.7   -1.7   14.8   21   -01.5   27   09   01   05   07.9   12   100   114   1927   117   1939   045   2011   11   19.6   17   097   092   1927   176   1976   19   1951   00   00   00  
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                             
  Stations marked with an asterisk record sunshine electronically; comparisons      
  with earlier records are therefore somewhat speculative. Thorney Island's      
  sunshine figures are made at a nearby site.      
  Averages are for 1981-2010