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graphs CLIMATE-UK.COM'S REVIEW OF THE BRITISH METEOROLOGICAL SCENE
MONTHLY SUMMARY
No. 685 For JANUARY 2013
COLD PERIOD WITH A GOOD DEAL OF SNOW 10TH-25TH; BEFORE AND AFTER MOSTLY MILD
Text Box: As often happens with a lengthy cold spell, the mean sea-level pressure pattern  during January showed a diffluent southwesterly flow over the British Isles. Pressure was zero to 3 mbar below the long-term average, and the anomalous flow was weakly south to southeasterly.

There was a strong rise of pressure over the UK during the first two days of January, and from then until the 9th an anticyclonic/southwesterly flow covered the country. There were good sunny periods over England and Wales on the 1st although it was  rather cold, but temperatures were much higher, especially over Scotland and Northern Ireland, between the 2nd and 4th, with 14.3C reached at Kinlochewe (Wester Ross) on the 2nd, while the highest overnight minimum temperature was 11.0C at Hawarden (Flintshire) early on the 3rd. Skies, however, were largely cloudy, and there was extensive hill fog at times, though there was very little rain except in the north  and west of Scotland. On the 7th there was heavy orographically-enhanced rain in southwest Scotland and Cumbria with 40mm logged at Dundrennan and Threave (both Kirkcudbrightshire). The mild weather lasted till the 8th, but an incursion of polar air on the 9th resulted in sunny spells in most districts.

For much of the period from the 10th to the 25th high pressure lay over Scandinavia or the Norwegian Sea, but winds during this period were quite variable in direction, though from an easterly quarter on several days. There was widespread fog on the 10th and 11th, though there was a little snow over high ground in Wales, the southwest Midlands and southern England early on the 12th. Further snow fell quite widely on the 14th with falls of 10cm locally in Lincolnshire and East Anglia. Until the 15th highs were typically between zero and 5C, but from the 16th to the 21st they were often just below zero; the lowest maximum during this period was -4.5C at Broom's Barn (Suffolk) on the 16th and there was a good deal of freezing fog in central and eastern parts. Lowest overnight temperature was -13.4C at Marham (Norfolk) early on the 16th.
Text Box: Further snow, accompanied by a strong southeasterly wind, spread across the country on the 18th, and there were renewed falls in eastern and central areas on the 20th. By now snow depths had reached 15cm in many parts of eastern and central England and southeast Scotland, but there was more to come in eastern Scotland and northeast England on the 21st and 22nd, and also in south Wales and southern England on the 22nd. An occlusion from the Atlantic crossed the country on the 25th with some remarkably heavy snow in the north Midlands, northern England and Scotland; many motorists were stranded on the M6 near Manchester for several hours. By the morning of the 26th snow lay 44cm deep at Auchterhouse (Angus). 

The remainder of the month was much milder with heavy rain and strong winds at times, though there was also a good deal of sunshine. On the 26th 59mm of rain fell at Lake Vyrnwy (Montgomeryshire) with a further 57mm on the 29th at Capel Curig (Caernarfon). Also on the 29th the temperature reached 14.5C at Hawarden (Flintshire), while on the 30th there was 7.9h of bright sunshine at Camborne (Cornwall). Until the 25th strong winds had been conspicuous by their absence, but gusts in excess of 70kn were recorded in Wales, northern England and Scotland on the 28th, 29th and 30th.

Mean maxima ranged from a fraction below normal in northern Scotland to 1.0-1.5 degC below in East Anglia and the Southeast, while mean minima varied between 1.0 degC above normal in parts of Scotland to 0.5-1.0 below in East Anglia. Rainfall percentages ranged from 74 in East Anglia to 128 in western Scotland; the highest rainfall total to hand is 257mm at Cluanie Inn (Wester Ross), the lowest 29mm at Gringley-on-the-Hill (Notts).  Sunshine percentages varied between 67 in Northern Ireland and northwest England and 100 in northern Scotland; the highest sunshine total to hand is 68h at Buxton (Norfolk) and the lowest 18h at Eskdalemuir (Dumfriesshire). Over half of the month's rainfall and about half the month's sunshine came during the last week.
                                                                                                                                             
    TEMPERATURE   SUNSHINE   RAINFALL        
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                  Highest and lowest totals             Highest and lowest totals        
                                  on record for month    
Maximum fall in 24 hrs
   (beginning 09 h)
        on record for month    
Days with snow or sleet
 
Days with fog
(Vis <220 yards at 09 h)
 
                                                                                         
     
Difference from average
   
Difference from average
 
Highest maximum
   
Lowest minimum
   
No. of days with grass
  minimum below 0C
   
Days of no sunshine
 
Maximum duration
       
First year of record
         
Days of no rainfall
 (0.1 mm or less)
         
First year of record
         
Days with thunder
     
  PLACE  
Mean Maximum
   
Mean minimum
             
No. of air frosts
       
Total for month
                   
Total for month
                   
                               
% of average
                   
% of average
                 
                                                                     
                                   
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
             
Highest
   
Lowest
 
Year
       
             
Date
   
Date
         
Date
         
Year
         
Date
         
Year
           
                                                                     
    C     C     C     C           Hrs     Hrs       Hrs     Hrs       mm     mm       mm     mm          
                                                                                                                                             
  Hampstead   05.0   -1.0   01.7   +0.4   12.6   29   -04.1   17   19   15   14   05.6   01   046   100   1910   096   2003   020   1917   06   10.6   26   062   102   1910   131   1995   14   1914   00   12   02  
  Thorney Island   06.8   -0.5   03.5   +1.2   12.0   29   -03.8   22   06   07   01   06.5   27   060   095   1958   105   2003   035   1975   10   25.6   12   129   174   1941   160   1988   12   1987   00   08   01  
  Wattisham   04.7   -0.7   00.6   -0.5   13.0   29   -10.9   16   18   15   14   07.2   16   059   100   1968   093   2001   022   1996   16   07.4   26   034   074   1960   133   1988   06   1997   00   14   04  
  Wittering   05.0   -0.4   01.0   -0.2   13.8   29   -09.3   17   17   16   17   06.3   09   047   080   1950   096   1959   016   1996   12   14.4   26   036   072   1948   107   1948   12   2000   00   14   05  
                                                                     
  Lyneham   05.3   -0.5   01.8   +0.4   12.8   29   -05.6   16   19   14   17   07.4   15   053   093   1952   088   1952   027   1996   07   11.4   26   067   107   1945   132   1995   06   1997   00   13   06  
  Ross-on-Wye   07.1   +0.6   02.7   +0.6   13.8   29   -08.1   25   19   09   01   06.6   30   072   124   1915   096   1952   017   1996   09   12.6   26   067   101   1859   161   1943   07   1898   00   10   03  
  St Athan   06.8   +0.2   03.5   +0.9   13.2   29   -01.8   21   11   06   16   06.2   09   048   087   1954   085   1959   021   1996   08   18.2   25   137   164   1954   172   1995   09   1997   00   07   02  
  Culdrose   08.7   +0.3   05.2   +0.6   11.8   29   00.3   20   09   02   14   06.5   30   046   074   1961   107   2010   029   1982   06   25.8   17   118   107   1961   255   1984   22   1964   00   03   02  
                                                                     
  Birmingham Univ   05.4   -0.4   01.5   +0.3   13.0   29   -04.5   25   21   14   05   06.0   27   063   128   1887   088   2012   007   1917   11   10.0   25   057   101   1887   153   1960   13   1888   00   14   05  
  Valley   07.0   -0.5   03.4   -0.5   10.8   29   -02.5   22   13   10   16   06.6   21   046   074   1946   094   2001   024   1983   06   11.8   25   062   075   1941   195   1948   07   1997   00   05   01  
  Rostherne   06.0   +0.4   01.9   +0.8   13.4   29   -05.2   16   18   11   12   07.1   22   042   074   1945   074   2003   011   1953   10   18.6   26   057   088   1942   170   1948   08   1997   00   14   03  
  Watnall   05.1   -0.3   01.5   +0.3   13.5   29   -06.8   17   13   16   13   07.0   09   045   076   1948   083   2000   013   1996   10   30.4   26   047   096   1942   149   1948   10   1997   00   14   05  
                                                                     
  Leeming   05.6   -0.2   01.5   +0.5   12.5   29   -08.1   16   19   14   14   06.2   09   041   067   1945   091   1959   018   1996   10   09.2   26   044   081   1945   129   1948   06   1997   00   13   03  
  Boulmer   06.1   -0.2   02.7   +1.5   12.2   08   -03.8   17   11   06   14   07.3   30   047   081   1945   104   1959   010   1996   03   12.4   18   101   160   1945   189   1948   09   1989   00   12   01  
  Eskdalemuir   04.0   -0.2   00.9   +1.5   10.4   02   -07.3   16   18   16   19   04.2   15   018   038   1911   096   1959   009   1996   07   32.2   26   179   123   1911   390   1928   38   1997   00   15   07  
  Bishopton   05.8   -0.2   02.5   +1.6   11.1   29   -02.8   16   17   06   12   04.8   14   034   078   1921   069   1972   009   1940   09   37.0   26   157   167   1921   255   2008   18   1963   00   10   02  
                                                                     
  Leuchars   05.9   +0.2   02.6   +1.7   11.6   04   -04.2   16   19   06   12   05.9   30   037   058   1922   101   1959   014   1996   07   11.0   21   079   136   1922   167   1993   12   1953   00   12   01  
  Dyce   05.6   +0.4   01.3   +1.0   13.3   04   -08.1   16   22   09   15   05.6   26   034   061   1941   089   1959   010   1996   04   16.6   25   075   098   1941   157   1970   13   1989   00   13   01  
  Stornoway   07.0   +0.5   03.6   +1.3   11.8   02   -03.4   24   08   02   14   05.5   18   028   072   1880   079   2001   012   1907   08   18.0   29   109   098   1943   274   1993   26   1963   00   09   00  
  Aldergrove   06.7   +0.7   03.1   +1.6   13.0   29   -01.7   11   12   05   15   04.4   31   028   057   1927   082   1959   024   1996   03   15.4   06   080   103   1927   151   2008   22   1997   00   09   01  
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                             
  Sunshine is recorded electronically at all sites except Ross-on-Wye.      
  Thorney Island's sunshine record come from a nearby site      
  All averages are for 1981-2010